Buy New Liberty University HLTH 620 Final Exam

Buy New Liberty University HLTH 620 Final Exam

 

 

  1. The experience of many countries shows that the onset of fertility decline is generally dependent on a particular threshold in socioeconomic factors such as levels of urbanization, female education, or infant mortality.
  2. The major challenges for family planning services in low- and middle-income countries include
  3. Determinants of fertility include
  4. The total fertility rate (TFR) is defined as
  5. Accurately using a highly effective contraceptive method practically eliminates the chance of unintended pregnancy during the reproductive span.
  6. The effective reproductive span is the period of time during which a woman is capable of and able to bear children, which is bounded by both the biological span and social reproductive span.
  7. Breastfeeding has a fertility-reducing effect during the postpartum period by postponing menstruation and ovulation and reducing fecundity after ovulation has resumed.
  8. The classic theory of demographic transition postulates that
  9. The rationale for support of family planning programs includes
  10. Since the 1950s national family planning programs in low- and middle-income countries have significantly increased the prevalence of contraceptive use and have played an important role in the reduction of fertility. Program success has depended on a number of factors including
  11. The changes that occur during the nutrition transition have led to the increasing prevalence of a number of chronic diseases including
  12. While progress is expected in reducing the prevalence of preschool-child undernutrition in many regions, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to continue taking its nutritional toll on infected children.
  13. Undernutrition and infectious diseases in low-income countries can lead to higher case fatality rates in children when experienced separately than when the two conditions are co-occurring.
  14. Health and developmental consequences can occur when diet continually fails to meet the nutritional demands for growth during childhood.
  15. The nutrition transition is a process marked by a shift away from more processed, refined foods towards a diet of more traditional, staple foods, often accompanied by seasonally available vegetables, fruits, and animal foods.
  16. While replacement feeding prevents transmission of HIV through human milk and is likely the best option in higher-income countries, in poor settings it can place infants at increased risk of death from other exposures and causes.
  17. Diarrheal diseases and pneumonia are the two most common causes of death in children younger than five years of age in low-income countries.
  18. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), either acute or chronic, is considered the dominant cause of undernutrition.
  19. When human waste is not removed completely from the household “environment” and isolated from drinking water supplies it can lead to outbreaks of
  20. The urbanized high-income regions of the world, home to one-fifth of the world’s population, contribute approximately what percentage of all greenhouse gas emissions?
  21. Some environmental exposures arise because of natural variations, including seasonal changes, natural disasters, and local micronutrient deficiencies in the soil.
  22. “Export of hazards” describes the process of
  23. It is difficult to estimate the burden of disease attributable to environmental factors in part due to limited knowledge about disease etiology and the latency period between environmental exposures and health outcomes.
  24. Annually, the lack of access to clean drinking water and appropriate sanitation facilities in low- and middle-income countries results in approximately 500,000 deaths from diarrheal diseases.
  25. Examples of the environmental impact of energy production and use include
  26. In general, low- and middle-income populations are the most vulnerable to the health impacts of environmental degradation and change.
  27. As a political disturbance or conflict evolves in a country, food scarcity can occur as
  28. The ability to accurately assess the conflict-associated costs in terms of morbidity, mortality, and disability is impacted by
  29. Internally displaced persons (IDPs), or those who have been forcibly displaced from their homes but remain within the country, have particular challenges including
  30. The combination of malnutrition and high-incident infectious diseases in refugee camps creates ideal conditions for micronutrient deficiencies.
  31. In addition to the medical and psychological trauma associated with rape, it is a large factor in the disintegration of families as victims are often excluded or turned away.
  32. A complex humanitarian emergency can be defined as a situation affecting large civilian populations, which usually involves a combination of factors including war or civil strife, food shortages, and population displacement resulting in significant excess mortality.
  33. Evaluations of the humanitarian impact of conflicts have shown that the increase in crude mortality rate is mostly attributable to lacking public health infrastructure rather than the direct impact of violence.
  34. The selection and training of refugees as health workers have been considered one key mechanism by which health programs can work more closely with affected communities.
  35. Historically, the degree of state involvement in the provision of health services varied enormously between countries, a source of disparities that persists even today.
  36. Many achievements gained through disease and program-specific initiatives cannot be maintained in countries with weak and fragile health systems.
  37. Allocative efficiency means devoting resources to that mix of activities that will have the greatest effect on health, also called being cost-effective.
  38. Classifying and comparing health systems is not challenging as most countries fit neatly into one type of category.
  39. Administrative efficiency is influenced by
  40. The “new public management” of health care seeks to expose public services to market pressures without necessarily privatizing them.
  41. A moral hazard is defined as the purchase of insurance followed by
  42. Regulation in low-income countries can have extra challenges such as a lack of basic information about providers and facilities, thus making it difficult to require any regular provision of information.
  43. By the end of the 20th century, low- and middle-income countries were increasingly encouraged to turn to the state (public health sector) to provide health services for their populations.
  44. Most resources for health systems are generated domestically, although governments may also receive significant aid from multilateral, bilateral, or NGO sources.
  45. As WHO membership grew and became more inclusive, maintaining a consensual policy environment grew increasingly challenging as ideological differences in health delivery and promotion emerged.
  46. Global cooperation on health occurs, in part, to help states address risks that they could not adequately manage within their national borders including
  47. In low- and middle-income countries with weak administrative systems, the sheer number of organizations involved in health and health services can hide the duplication of activities and programs.
  48. While increased health program participants provide opportunities for multisectoral participation in healthcare, the quality of the participants will be poor if effective coordination among participants is not established.
  49. Civil society organizations have been successful at influencing private, and commercial sector policies for the health and benefit of domestic groups, including
  50. The policy process occurs in which different phases?

Set 2

  1. The experience of many countries shows that the onset of fertility decline is generally dependent on a particular threshold in socioeconomic factors such as levels of urbanization, female education, or infant mortality.
  2. Allocative efficiency means devoting resources to that mix of activities that will have the greatest effect on health, also called being cost-effective.
  3. Research has shown that the process of demographic transition is quite varied and does not occur consistently across countries.
  4. By 2025, the majority of the world’s population is expected to reside in urban areas of low- or middle-income countries. Does such urbanization affect which of the following?
  5. Undernutrition and overnutrition often coexist within the same population group and even within the same family.
  6. In general, low- and middle-income populations are the most vulnerable to the health impacts of environmental degradation and change.
  7. New NGOs are sometimes established in response to specific conflicts. These organizations may be short-lived due to their inexperience and inability to cope with the challenges they face in providing services in complex political environments.
  8. Generally speaking, out-of-pocket payment is the most regressive modality of financing health care.
  9. There is no evidence of long-lasting benefits of maternal single- and combined-micronutrient supplementation on child health and survival outcomes beyond the neonatal period.
  10. As WHO membership grew and became more inclusive, maintaining a consensual policy environment grew increasingly challenging as ideological differences in health delivery and promotion emerged.
  11. Some of the key objectives of health-sector reform include
  12. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), either acute or chronic, is considered the dominant cause of undernutrition.
  13. Global cooperation on health occurs, in part, to help states address risks that they could not adequately manage within their national borders including
  14. The consequences of unintended pregnancies and births include
  15. Most resources for health systems are generated domestically, although governments may also receive significant aid from multilateral, bilateral, or NGO sources.
  16. Classifying and comparing health systems is not challenging as most countries fit neatly into one type of category.
  17. Environment-related indicators for the monitoring of progress toward the U.N. Millennium Development Goals include
  18. The rationale for support of family planning programs includes
  19. Iron deficiency is considered the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world.
  20. By the end of the 20th century, low- and middle-income countries were increasingly encouraged to turn to the state (public health sector) to provide health services for their populations.
  21. One example of consensus building in international health is the considerable change in perspective on population growth and family planning that occurred between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s.
  22. Wasting reflects acute protein-energy malnutrition whereas stunting indicates chronic PEM.
  23. As a political disturbance or conflict evolves in a country, food scarcity can occur as
  24. Financing agents, or those responsible for collecting revenue to pay for health services, may be publicly or privately owned and may offer services directly to patients or purchase services through providers.
  25. Accurately using a highly effective contraceptive method practically eliminates the chance of unintended pregnancy during the reproductive span.
  26. Descriptive studies are limited in their ability to yield definite conclusions about etiology due to
  27. Several challenges with providing ongoing humanitarian support include understanding
  28. The ability to accurately assess the conflict-associated costs in terms of morbidity, mortality, and disability is impacted by
  29. The Declaration of Alma Ata in 1978 emphasized health delivery in the hospital setting with a focus on secondary and tertiary prevention.
  30. Regulation in low-income countries can have extra challenges such as a lack of basic information about providers and facilities, thus making it difficult to require any regular provision of information.
  31. One of the main justifications for the state’s role in the design of health systems lies in explanations of market failure, related to
  32. Historically, the degree of state involvement in the provision of health services varied enormously between countries, a source of disparities that persists even today.
  33. Since the 1950s national family planning programs in low- and middle-income countries have significantly increased the prevalence of contraceptive use and have played an important role in the reduction of fertility. Program success has depended on a number of factors including
  34. The pluralism of activity and partnership of health actors has raised the status of health on the world’s policy agenda but has also heightened concerns about a number of potential problems including
  35. The traditional rationale for the role of government regulation of health care is for the state to limit health care spending.
  36. The environmental risk transition describes the tendency for environmental risks to shift during the economic development process, from the global and regional scale to the household community.
  37. Despite differences in legal access, there is little difference in the likelihood of having an abortion in Africa and Europe; however, the abortion mortality rate is significantly higher in regions where abortion is illegal.
  38. Undernutrition and infectious diseases in low-income countries can lead to higher case fatality rates in children when experienced separately than when the two conditions are co-occurring.
  39. The nutrition transition is a process marked by a shift away from more processed, refined foods towards a diet of more traditional, staple foods, often accompanied by seasonally available vegetables, fruits, and animal foods.
  40. When conventional health services are interrupted, adaptations occur and new actors supplement the diminishing resources, such as
  41. A moral hazard is defined as the purchase of insurance followed by
  42. WHO member states are obligated to adhere to and implement policies decided at the annual World Health Assembly.
  43. International cooperation on health began with the formation of the World Health Organization after World War II.
  44. Research has shown that excluding men from most family planning programs affected the ability of women to take advantage of their services because men play a dominant role in family planning decisions in many regions.
  45. Western imperialism and colonization have had a major impact on the health services of colonized countries.
  46. Refugees are defined as persons who flee their country of origin through a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, social class, political beliefs, or economic status.
  47. The most important criterion for the selection of a refugee camp site is
  48. While replacement feeding prevents transmission of HIV through human milk and is likely the best option in higher-income countries, in poor settings it can place infants at increased risk of death from other exposures and causes.
  49. Health systems of low- and middle-income countries tend to be fragmented with different arrangements for different population groups.
  50. It is difficult to estimate the burden of disease attributable to environmental factors in part due to limited knowledge about disease etiology and the latency period between environmental exposures and health outcomes.

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