Download New Liberty University CJUS 323 Exam 2
Download New Liberty University CJUS 323 Exam 2
- Cohen estimates that small reductions in crime require only minimal increases in the percentage of people sentenced to prison.
- The emphasis of community policing should be on:
- The best example of actuarial prediction is:
- Which of the following did not claim that rehabilitation has only a limited impact on recidivism?
- Perhaps the most common outcome measures NOT considered in the rehabilitation literature is:
- Education/information/knowledge programs have all but which of the following results?
- Which of the following was NOT one of Clarke’s original (1983) types of situational prevention?
- Routine activities theory posits that individuals make decisions on whether to commit an offense based on an array of inputs, including the effort involved, the potential payoff, the degree of peer support for the action, the risk of apprehension and punishment, and the needs of the individual.
- Community policing is nothing more than simple police-community relations.
- The two types of incapacitation are:
- Which of the following is NOT one of the major categories of situational techniques presented in the Cornish and Clarke typology?
- The lifestyle perspective specifically focuses on the activity of the victim as a contributing factor in criminal acts.
- Instances, where respondents report multiple acts of the same type over a specific reference period in victimization surveys, are called:
- Which of the following is NOT one of the major categories of restorative justice programs?
- Studies of the specific deterrent effects of imprisonment generally show:
- The Crime and Disorder Act mandated which of the following?
- Kelly et al. and Browning and Loeber identify pathways to delinquent behavior. Do these include all but which of the following?
- In terms of victim and offender satisfaction, studies generally find:
- Analyzing specific deterrence, looking at the length of imprisonment on parole outcome shows:
- Problem-oriented policing means approaching issues and problems differently based on the uniqueness of each situation.
- “Small places in which the occurrence of crime is so frequent that it is highly predictable, at least over a one-year period” defines
- The underlying philosophy is to encourage interaction and cooperation between police officers, residents, community groups, and other agencies to solve problems.
- The idea that prior victimization or other factors identify a target as good for further victimization is known as:
- Which of the following is NOT a key principle underlying successful rehabilitation according to Andrews et al.?
- Blocked attainment and feelings of failure in school have been found to have no impact on deviant behavior.
- Seeking to repair the harm done to the victim and community while also helping the offender defines:
- Evaluations of the Community-Wide Approach to Gang Prevention, Intervention, and Suppression Program found all but which of the following?
- In the debate over the relationship between drug use and crime, the position gaining the strongest support appears to be:
- Which of the following is NOT a key assumption in incapacitation claims?
- Situational crime prevention can be traced to the work of:
- Studies of recidivism after participation in restorative justice find:
- A “virtual repeat” refers to:
- Wortley argues that Clarke and Homel’s situational prevention typology is incomplete and suggests that there are four precipitators to crime. Which of the following is NOT a precipitator?
- Routine activities theory posits that all but which of the following are needed for crime?
- Predictions that claim that an individual will be dangerous in the future and then the individual is not dangerous are called:
- The individual who stated that “with few and isolated exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far have had no appreciable effect on recidivism” was:
- Which of the following is NOT a common element of drug courts?
- Which of the following is NOT one of the key theoretical bases for situational prevention?
- Evaluations of the effectiveness of drug court programs show:
- Lipsey and Derzon find all but which of the following are strong risk factors for later deviance?
- Which of the following is NOT considered an essential element of community policing?
- Changes that appear in large groups of subjects are referred to as:
- The best example of a Resistance Skills Training program is:
- In circle sentencing, the entire community has the opportunity to do what?
- Victims who experience a high concentration of offenses are labeled as supermarkets by Pease.
- Which of the following is NOT a feature of a successful partnership?
- posits that individuals make decisions on whether to commit an offense based on an array of inputs, including the effort involved, the potential payoff, the degree of peer support for the action, the risk of apprehension and punishment, and the needs of the individual
- A spurious relationship means that two variables influence each other in a like fashion.
- Polvi et al. are credited with introducing the idea of repeat victimization. In their analysis, the risk of being a repeat burglary victim is higher than expected by chance and this risk is more pronounced immediately after an initial burglary.
- Which of the following is NOT one of Cullen and Gendreau’s principles for effective correctional treatment programs?
- What is developmental prevention? Discuss the basis for developmental prevention. What does developmental prevention suggest about the solution to crime in society?
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